The Development of Competitivity Clusters: what involvement for Universities?

By Jean Lachmann

The cluster theory provided answers to the problems of industrial restructuring in the late 20th century. France launched in 2004 a clustering policy (poles of competiveness). Clusters were the essential foundations of the virtuous cycle of innovation thanks to partnerships between businesses and academic institutions. This paper reviews the evolution of districts regarding clusters, focusing on the "poles of competitivity." The role played by universities and the role they may have in innovation policy as well as in the conditions for a successful development of the second round of clusters is analyzed. JEL codes: R58, I23, O32


  • clusters
  • universities
  • innovation
  • R&D policy
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