Labor and Territorial Regulations: An Analysis of French, Italian, and Brazilian Cases

By Christian Azaïs

This paper considers the hypothesis of a link between hybridization, which characterizes the labor market, and the emergence of a new territorial structuring. Hybridization reflects the entanglement of the multiple forms of employment forms individuals are faced with. By reshaping the contours of the development and of the segregation areas over which the authorities act as regulators, hybridization has an impact on territorial dynamics. In the same way, the confrontation between the actor’s multiple logics deals with territorial regulation and imparts a specific configuration to the territory, which in turn influences forms of employment. Cases from Italy, France, and Brazil highlight the fact that, despite few points of convergence between these three contexts, some similarities do exist, particularly among each country’s underprivileged.


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