The historical context determines in large part the sequencing of priorities in the scientific phenomena to be studied, the techniques (methods and tools) to be used, and the social use that will be made of the results. Marx highlighted three stages leading to the transformation of the production forces of capitalism: the organization of isolated workers under one management, followed by the division of the work into tasks and their differentiation, and finally clear separation between intellectual and manual work. This paper presents the fourth stage in the organization of production. It presents this organization a being based on the spatial devolution of the achievement of this production and on the decisional, financial, and informational centralization the applications of contemporary science allow. This fourth stage is characterized by the combination in a single group of employees paid by the company itself and a salaried staff paid by other organizations but appropriated by the company that makes use of this group. This fourth stage constitutes an unprecedented form of marketability for science, which is organized as a network by enterprises and states with a clear technological aim.
By Dimitri Uzunidis