By Julien Pénin
This article analyzes the organization of the open science system. We explain the nature of the problem to be solved by this institution, namely ensuring the production and dissemination of reliable fundamental knowledge. We show how the open and community organization of science around specific scientific norms offers a coherent and effective answer to this problem. We then return to the limits of this model, which have led to its questioning and the return of the state and the market in science in the recent decades. Finally, we analyze the opportunities but also the dangers linked to these returns, focusing in particular on the example of patenting scientific research.
JEL Codes: O3