Monetary, Financial and Banking Innovations: The Representative Signs of Money

By Gilles Jacoud


In his monetary writings, Say reflects in detail on monetary, financial, and banking innovations to which he designates the expression “representative signs of money”. Say’s analysis of money and its representative signs is also important since it takes place in a context of major changes in the monetary field. The aim of this article is to show how, in Say’s analysis, these representative signs of money constitute important innovations. The article begins by showing how the representative signs are situated in relation to money itself. It then reflects on promissory notes and bills of exchange. It follows on with banknotes. Finally, the implications of their circulation are presented, notably for the producers whose activity they promote. JEL Codes : B12, E4, E5


  • J.-B. Say
  • money
  • sign
  • banknote
  • bill of exchange
  • promissory note
  • circulation
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