Formation and Deformation of the Environmental Kuznets Curve for CO2 Emissions

By Thomas Jobert, Fatih Karanfil

"Following Grimes and Roberts (1997), this paper studies the temporal instability of the environmental Kuznets curve for a sample of 51 countries over the period 1970-2008. Results show that: (1) an inverted U-shape curve appears in the early 1980s; (2) environmental efficiency increases over time as the coefficient of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per unit of primary energy consumption decreases; (3) there is an upward trend of the turning point, which goes from $10,000 in the early 1980s to almost $20,000 in 2008. JEL Codes: C21, O13, O44, Q40, Q56"


  • air pollution
  • environmental Kuznets curve
  • carbon dioxide emissions
  • energy consumption
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