Commercial Innovation and Households’ Time Use: A Conceptual Framework

By Camal Gallouj


This article offers an explanation of innovations in large retail companies based on the time dimension. On the basis of the change of time and households’ time use, four innovation trajectories are observed: a time saving trajectory by the consumer, a time enrichment trajectory, an externalization of certain domestic tasks trajectory, and a combination trajectory which results from the many hybridization possibilities among the former three generic trajectories. JEL L810, O320.


  • retailing
  • innovation trajectories
  • household time use
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