By Vanessa Casadella, Mohamed Benlahcen-Tlemcani
This paper presents a critical approach of the National Innovation System (NIS) in underdeveloped economies. It is organized in three parts. First the implementation of NIS requirements in developing economies are defined. A distinction is then made between developed and developing NISs based on a learning polarization phenomenon. The final part offers an analysis of NISs in terms of learning opportunities, learning cultures, and economic development that go beyond classic interpretations of learning capabilities. The paper concludes that the National System of Competence Building label may be more suitable for less developed economies.