By Renaud Bellais
The end of the Cold War led to weakening of the relationship between science and defense that emerged following World War II. Defense R&D funding dried up during the 1990s. Although the military’s requirements for innovation and technology have evolved compared to the second half of the 20th century, they remain significant in facing potential threats and in carrying out new missions. Can a new partnership between science and defense be the solution in Europe if constrained military expenditures and leadership in science and technology could be combined? Do recent trends in relations between states and markets open the way for new forms of scientific and technological effort?