By David Vallat
Despite economic growth, the persistence of social exclusion questions the ability of society to be inclusive through job creation. While poverty signals a deficiency, exclusion reflects an inability. What is the link between unemployment, poverty, and social exclusion? Moreover, what is the role unemployment played in the genesis of these economic curses? Exclusion refers almost entirely to the concept of social integration, which is itself based on solidarity (the social link) underlying the French socio-political system. This legacy from Durkheim’s thinking leads one to believe that integration comes from public action. A detailed knowledge of the exclusion process would allow for a follow up to micro-local public actions through individual initiatives. This could be achieved by constructing with an analytical scale measuring the specific conditions of a targeted population, and in particular its ability to organize in order to serve as actors in their own integration. In this framework, the informal sector can be perceived as a step toward the market economy and therefore employment.